Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge
The book “Scientology: Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge” was written by Dr. Anastasius Nordenholz. It was first published in 1934.
Knowledge as the Problem of Science: Scientology
The world appears to our consciousness as a multiplicity of phenomena, which we generally distinguish in a rough way as things, occurrences and relations. Our total picture of the world combines all these as its single items, as singularities, as partial structure.
A science of the world is separated into as many individual sciences as there can be separated viewpoints of the total world picture, or as many as anyone can pick a plan out of a partial picture of the world.
Now, knowledge as such is likewise a part of the world, a phenomenon among phenomena, a partial function within the overall workings of the total world system. From the viewpoint of the world, consciousness is a part of the relationships between reality and our brain system.
The separation of knowledge as a particular appearance of the world raises the burning question of a science, of what knowledge the study of knowledge itself requires. Thus is developed the challenge of a science of knowledge. What is knowledge? What can we know, what must be known about knowledge to justify the world? The question thus is nothing less than self-knowing, determination of the nature of self, and also of self-realization and self-understanding of knowledge. Is this possible? Is it possible, can the systemization of knowledge itself be accomplished? How can a Science of Knowledge be produced?
With this questions we have raised the problem of Scientology.
Scientology, as the science of knowledge itself, places itself in contrast to those sciences of things, which pass into knowledge. Realizing the precise nature of the problem of knowledge, let us proceed to the facts of the case.
Scientology thus selects knowledge for its subject. On the other hand knowledge does NOT cease to be a part, a particular condition of the world as it exists, belonging to the body-spirit level of the world. Because of the nature of the problem of knowledge, a dual positioning of Knowledge is required.
- Knowledge as such is established in its contrast to the world (as we shall see later) as agent, producer, creator of the world, and thus in its active role.
- Knowledge, on the other hand, does not cease to be a part, a partial relation of the world. By this it subjects itself to its own activity, selects for itself a passive role, and makes itself a fact, a product, a creation of itself.
The price of comprehending consciousness in its entirety is therefore the obligation of giving these two positions of knowledge their rights and full appreciation. From this, Scientology is classified right at the beginning into sciences of
- Consciousness in its active role: pure Scientology,
- Consciousness in its passive role: applied Scientology.
The total system of Scientology is capable of arising primarily out of the cooperation of these two positions, out of the simultaneously active and passive spontaneity of consciousness. Consciousness of reality enters Scientology only through the other side, the appearance-side of the world-factor consciousness, and not as a part and accessory of the world. At this point, applied Scientology breaks into the essential domain of phenomenology, into the world of appearances, while retaining for itself the originality of its own contemplation. However looked upon, Scientology remains the Science of Consciousness.
We arrive at this schematic:
Recognition, perception, self-knowledge of the world thus demands tracing back to the two independent positions of consciousness, as the active side and of world, as the passive side. Only on this dual basis the work of knowledge about the world can raise itself. Otherwise all attempts towards a unism, like
- knowledge is nothing but world, a rise of knowledge in the world,
- world is nothing but knowledge, a rise of world in knowledge,
merely remains an arbitrariness. Only out of the equally valued cooperation of knowledge as creator; and world as creation, true science of the world can arise.
Consciousness as mediator to the world and the world as that which is mediated, are mutual supplements, complements. With every part of either, the other is simultaneously established and understood. Consciousness as producer presupposes world, world as a product presupposes consciousness. Based on this state of affairs Scientology takes the right of to treat and also presuppose the world as counterpart, as an appendage of consciousness, which means going back to the worldly given conditions as if they were self-explanatory. Because without this worldly appendages, all knowledge would remain wholly empty and pointless. The completion and reciprocal condition of consciousness and world is based on the construction of the world and is therefore inevitable. Therefore a reciprocal assumption of the results of Scientology and Cosmology is also justified and unobjectionable. One can treat the related parts of an integral whole, AS IF they would exist each by itself. But this can never be more than an artificial step of the proceedings, simply an operational method. The real and exciting mutual dependency of the two regions will in no manner be influenced or abolished through use of this method.
Once we take this baseline about the relation of knowledge and world, we arrive from the first at a decisive result. If the world is a creation of the consciousness, then we will naturally come across the trace of the creating activity of consciousness in the world. Experience and observation will let us hit the results in the form of knowledge, conception, comprehension. Now it would be a rushness if we would conclude, from the fact, that they themselves could be taken out of the world, that comprehension and conception also have their last and essential origin in the world itself. The possibility remains always open that consciousness and reason themselves have first brought such knowledge and comprehension into the world. But it still has to be examined, and to what extent, if consciousness and reason really are the originators of the worldly system of concepts.
The task of Scientology is the erection of the systems of knowledge, of understanding, of comprehension per se. Reason (here we have to infringe into Psychology & Logic) is consciousness in concepts of systematized comprehension. Comprehension is systematized knowing, knowingness within a system. A science of knowledge, by its own uniqueness, lifts itself out of the circle of all other sciences.
- Scientology as a science of knowledge, or as a system of knowledge, predicates self-comprehension, self-review, self-systematization, self-grasping, self-recognition of knowledge and of comprehension.
- Knowledge is the common material of all other sciences. It follows therefore that the science of knowledge itself is the key-science of the overall system of the sciences of the world. All other sciences of the world have the science of knowledge as their presuppositions, by virtue of the original dependency of all world-hood upon knowing. Without the complement taken through Scientology, all direct sciences of the world, all sciences not connected through this interaction of Scientology would remain one-sided, uncompleted and prejudiced, whether abstract or concrete sciences. Every supposed autarchy or autonomy, any singular science of the world, can be nothing better than an uncritical encroachment or a self-deception.
Unaware thinking has always simply seen THE given fact in the world. We ourselves, our knowing and comprehension may be only ingredients of the world. The task of any science cannot be any other than exploring this world more and more correctly and exactly in all its details. The wishful goal of such a world conception is an endless breakdown of the world and all reality into complexities of physical, astronomical, geological, chemical, biologic, personality and sociologic processes. Schopenhauer rightly speaks against such “dogmatists who assume that if they only go straight forward long enough they would arrive at the end of the world”. Because, what is really going on: an attempt to escape from the unknown into even more unknowns. A closer consideration has to raise doubt if this equation “world equals beingness” is even right, or if our consciousness is not jointly responsible for something of this world-beingness. The question if consciousness has parts in the world cannot be dismissed out of hand without further investigation. Again, if this portion of consciousness is not reliably connected or disconnected from the building of world, then obviously every science of the world jumping over this primary question, would make itself surreptitiously guilty in their assumptions. The original dispute between knowledge and world has to be cleared up. The problem of Kant, the participation or non-participation of our consciousness, of our mind and our reason in the construction of the world stands at the portal of all comprehension and all science.
Consciousness, Conscious-Beingness, World-Beingness
If we take consciousness as an independent factor out of the world, and assign to consciousness an individual role regarding the world, we get an opposition of consciousness and world.
Consciousness, which always remains a part and particular creation of the world, is, because of this very worldliness, incompetent to create from a nothingness. In order for consciousness to be able to create, it has to first find a source out of which it can create, a somethingness a beingness. The creation won by consciousness out of that beingness, being captured by consciousness, transforms into Being-In-Consciousness, into Certainty of Beingness, into conscious-beingness. Consciousness and conscious- beingness supplement themselves in regard to the world. In each one of the two the world is immanent, but world in another relation, in another role. Consciousness in its creator-role brings about the world. Conscious-beingness is brings about the world as a creature.
Consciousness as creator and conscious-beingness as a creation unite into world-beingness.
World-beingness is Beingness under the law of consciousness; the world is an accessory, a complement to consciousness. Only that what is knowable goes forth into the world itself. Beingness has only has its place in the world in form of conscious-beingness .
Scientology, Phenomenology, Cosmology
The systematic positioning of Knowledge and world, as it has just been described, delivers the fundament for all systematizing of science. It responds as follows: First, to the consciousness as science, the Scientology; Second to the conscious-beingness as science, the Phenomenology; Third, to the world-beingness per se as science, cosmology.
Phenomenology is the science of the Beingness in Knowledge, of the Being as it is known or seen, as it appears in Knowledge. On the other hand, Cosmology grasps the world as the product of Knowledge or Consciousness, thus extending itself both to the side of Knowledge and to the side of Beingness.
With the help of the position which has been assigned to consciousness, Scientology comes forth as the key science for all of Phenomenology and Cosmology.
Axioms as starting point
By approaching the problem of consciousness, that is, the formation system of consciousness, the comprehension system of reason shall be erected. Thus, nothing less is being selected than a self-knowing, a self-conceiving, a self-reflecting picture of reason. That which is sought, comprehension itself, has to be assumed as being already in existence. If we want to say something, we require the use of language; if we want to comprehend, we must have reason, the system of comprehension. This results in the following state of affairs: What would be discovered should be treated as if it already exists. Here we are standing in front of a circular condition:
- Systemization of consciousness and reason demands knowledge, comprehension;
- Knowledge, comprehension is demanding the system of consciousness, reason.
This relationship does not let itself in any way be eliminated, because it lies founded in the nature of the consciousness as the creators of the world and therefore as the creator of itself.
The winning of one’s leaps and starts out of this circle is only possible by way of assuming power, and so cutting the knots. This occurs in form of decreeing an initial path out in the form of an emplacement of Axioms.
Axioms are comprehensions, propositions, declarations, which are initially set in place AS IF they stand of their own power and dignity, AS IF they were capable of, but do not need, a verification or confirmation from another source.
By no means should the inner self-assurance of the Axioms be interpreted as actuality, as actual truth. Rather shall they be treated and set in place only AS IF they possessed such characteristics.
The Axioms owe their nomination to the nature of the problem of Knowledge which wants to know what it is itself. With all this they are, to a certain degree, children of an emergency, they cannot claim to be more than bare preliminaries, more than makeshifts. The duty of proving the Axioms is not abolished with all this, only set aside. The arbitrary and self-powered constitution of the Axioms naturally does not assure their correct standing, it signifies just as little that their validity over-all would be unattainable or inexplicable. This signifies ONLY that the confirmation of legitimacy in the matter of their self-covering of their own basis has to be adjourned at the present.
Axioms are not found through derivation or deduction, but are discovered as such. The Axioms are already emplaced in consciousness, so the expectation of assuming that they will reveal themselves in the consciousness is not a daring one.
Emplacement of Axioms
The Axioms of Consciousness claim to be an expression of self-placed constructive stipulation of Knowledge. With Knowledge itself all our science points to the final assignment of axioms.
Science is generally looked upon as a system of comprehension; Scientology especially is that one system of comprehension which complies with the consciousness.
A system is a united total out of homogeneous parts — here it is necessary to assume that later results of our inquiry are available.
Systemization of Scientology has to take a way out through the axioms, as their application is necessary for the presentation of the problems of Knowledge. Axioms or a system of axioms is the only possible result of Scientology. The entire system of this Science is built-in upon axioms, and carries axiomatic character.
The axiom-system of consciousness is composed from the three partial axioms:
- Axiom of Mediation; the dual path, Immanence and Transcendence of Consciousness
- Axiom of Formation – pointing to the World
- Axiom of Individuation – Immanence of Consciousness
The axiom system is ascribed to the capability to carry and bring forward the entire comprehension system of Consciousness. Thus will be produced the further building plan of Scientology.
- Axiomatics: Exposition of the axioms and the axiom systems of Consciousness.
- Systematics: Erection of the forming or molding system of consciousness, the comprehension system of Reason, based on the axiom system.
- Apologetics: Justification of the produced comprehension systems and with that working back to the underlying basis of the axioms systems.
- Epistematics: Establishment of the total-system of sciences from the foundation of the Scientology system of Knowledge and Comprehension.
The Axiom-System of Consciousness
The Axiom of Mediation
The consciousness nominated as the creator of the world, presupposes a source, out of which it can create; a beingness which somehow and in some kind can be reached by consciousness, but which exists there by itself BEFORE and independent of consciousness. The assumption of a creator activity of consciousness is dependent upon the Standing Order of self-primordial, free, detached, absolute beingness, a Beingness-by-itself.
The sense of the Axiom of Mediation is: consciousness pushes itself as link, as intermediate, as the creator between a beingness-by-itself and the beingness intermediated by consciousness. This beingness as it becomes knowledge and how it is known is the conscious-beingness. Mediation allows conscious-beingness to become a creature of Consciousness. Consciousness thus shows itself in a double relationship: Beingness-by-itself <- consciousness -> conscious-beingness. Beingness does not step into appearance itself, but only by mediation of consciousness.
Beingness in Knowledge, the conscious-beingness thus is the creation of Consciousness.
The proportion in which consciousness succeeds in mediating and creating, depends on its inherent creative power. As these are limited as all worldly things are, thus these creations of consciousness are incomplete and imperfect. This elucidates to begin with. conscious-beingness does not cover the beingness-by-itself, is not unified with it. Rather it reflects beingness-by-itself only in its own standard and under its own conditions. Between beingness-by-itself and Conscious-beingness gapes diversification: Conscious-beingness is nothing more than a surrogate or substitute of beingness-by-itself, because beingness-by-itself remains utterly outside knowledge, one cannot quite make out anything about it with means of consciousness. We have to be satisfied with the negative statement that the beingness-by-itself is the unknown and unperceivable beingness.
Beingness generally arranges itself under these set-ins of consciousness:
- Conscious-beingness, Creature of Beingness
- Beingness-by-itself, source of all Beingness
The Axiom of the Mediation consequently does not only point to the worldly side, but also to the non-worldly side of the beingness, insofar it is the expression of the transcendence of Consciousness.
According to this conception, world is the knowledge-created-beingness transformed by consciousness. World stands there as a creation, consciousness as creator, conscious-beingness as creature.
The Axiom of Formation or Specification
Consciousness forms the mediation from beingness to world. ONE side of the activity of consciousness is thus characterized by its direction towards the world. In this, its indication towards the world, its immanence-relation, consciousness is pressing its special imprint upon the world, making it into conscious-beingness.
In immanence and transcendence of consciousness, both sides of its world-creating role are completed.
The closer determination of the peculiarity which consciousness imparts to beingness will be produced through the two Axioms of the Immanence, the Axiom of Formation (Specification) and the Axiom of Individuation.
Consciousness takes possession of beingness, while it draws beingness into its form, thus through forming or shaping. Form which is impressed upon beingness is fixed by consciousness. This is what the Axiom of the Formation wants to say.
Beingness in form is by no means the same as primordial beingness. In the place of beingness-by-itself, beingness in imaging, an image of beingness has entered. Beingness sees itself replaced by a picture-like counterpart. For this reason we can name the axiom of formation also as the axiom of specification, the axiom of construction, of shaping, of imagination. Consciousness takes a facsimile of beingness, puts it into the picture, makes it into beingness in the picture. World to some extent becomes the facsimile gallery of beingness.
Formation or Specification sets forward and assumes:
- the ability of consciousness to imagine (individually form) and the ability of the consciousness to put beingness into picture
- the inclination of beingness to the acceptance of formation or imagination of consciousness.
The Axiom of Individuation
Form and formation, structure and composition supply the opposite to the not-formed, the shapelessness.
Form and Structure, roughly looked at, signify:
- a separateness, a division, a separation, a deposition in such a way that separated totals stand against totals, in contrast to the things which flow into one another, the things which are continuos.
- a togethered-ness, a union and combination of parts to a total, in contrast to incoherence and isolation.
An asunder — together of something is possible in two ways:
- as irregular and lawless, as any way you like meeting and separating, then a mere accumulation, as jobs of heaping, as conglomeration springs up;
- as connection and separation according to an organizing principle or law.
The Axiom of Individuation now maintains that form and formation, shape and modeling of our consciousness are subject to an organizing principle, and that this exact law is the individuation.
- All formations opposing each other in our consciousness are whole individuals, are individually whole.
- All combined parts which mutually join to a unit are likewise individuals, individual parts of the whole.
Formation and modeling, to which our consciousness subjects beingness, stands under the law of individuation. Form and shape of conscious-beingness imply existence as an individual total from individual parts.
An individual is an integrating unity, a homogeneous system of parts which complement each other. With the breakup of its parts the individual has been lost. The parts, in all their completeness, cannot replace the individual total. From this reason we have this determination: Individuality possesses an image which cannot be separated without losing its originality. The wholeness of the individual does not allow relinquishing anything out of the sum of its parts, the parts do not let themselves be separated from the particular individual whole.
The Axiom of the Individuation sets up the individuation as the organizing principle of form. Space and time (the forms) are not the “principia individuationis” according to Schopenhauer, but just the reverse: all forming, also space and time, are subject to the principle of individuation.
When individuation is the all-inclusive principle of forming and shaping, it follows that all mixtures, heaps, all accumulations of the world have to dissolve finally into individuals. Therefore, all considerations and all those sciences which select mere heaps out of the world pattern carry the stamp and mark of the provisional.
This axiom system claims to be the way out towards full comprehensibility of consciousness and its world. This axiom system shall, so to speak, display the inventing thoughts of our world.
“Worlding” shall be creation on the basis of the axiom system, so that we can say: the world of the consciousness is the individual being which is mediated, formed, specified, through consciousness.
The axiom system has to supply a basis for the originality and self-determination of the world of consciousness. Appearance in its type and kind, manner and way, degree and gradient, is dependent on the type, manner, and degree of consciousness itself and the axiom systems of consciousness (“to other beings things may appear differently” – Kant). The unity of the axiom systems guarantees the unity of the total comprehensibility of reason, which without this system would be deprived of the last unity and order.
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